Sudan is the 10 most populated country in the Africa as of 2020. The country is located in the North East Africa, bordering Egypt on its north. Sudan also shares a coastal boundary with the famous Red Sea, which plays an important role in connecting the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean sea. The capital city of Sudan is Khartoum and it hosts a population of around 42.8 million people.
1. Sudan was the largest country in Africa
Before July 2011, Sudan was the largest country in the African continent, as per the area. However, as the Southern Sudan gained independence, after two decades of conflict with the Northern part of the country, the country’s area was reduced. After the division, the capital of the South Sudan is Juba. The official religion of the Sudan is Islam whereas South Sudan has a majority of Christians. The conflict was also based on the alleged indiscriminate distribution of the resources.
2. World’s largest river flows through Sudan
River Nile flows through Sudan. The River finds two origins, one from the Lake Victoria while the other tributary starts from Ethiopia. The river from the Lake Victoria flows through the Uganda, South Sudan, Sudan and then ultimately to the Egypt. The one starting from the Ethiopia, also called as Blue River Nile passes into Sudan.
3. Sudan gained freedom from Britain and Egypt
In 1956, on the first of January, Sudan had obtained its freedom from the UK and Egypt. Britishers in the late 19th century governed Sudan along with the Egyptians. The growing nationalism of Sudanese in the early 20th century forced the Britishers to give self government to Sudan in 1953. The wave of anti-colonialism was passing around the globe. Ultimately on 1st January, 1956 Sudan gained freedom.
4. Pharaoh history plays a role in Sudan
Many people believe that Pharaoh is merely a part of Egyptian history, on the contrary the old kingdoms also ruled on the Sudan. National Geographic covered a 2,300-year-old tomb of a pharaoh named Nastasen in Sudan. It was known as the Land of Nubia in the oldest of times, a point where White and Blue River Nile meet. This region is today a part of the Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt. The king belonged to the Kushite dynasty. This dynasty reigned between 744-656 BC.
5. Sudan has more Pyramids than Egypt
According to Science Alert and other known sources, Sudan has 200-255 known Pyramids, whereas in Egypt this number stands at 138. Normally, people believe that Egypt is the country which has most pyramids; however, factually this belief is wrong. These pyramids were greatly built by the members of the Kush dynasty, as this dynasty ruled along the river Nile. A belief was prevalent in the region that building tombs could help the dead reach the gates of heaven. Further, Fiona MacDonald’s report was published on the internet, which says that the surface of the Pyramids found in Egypt is different as compared to the ones found in Sudan.
6. Sudan Exports gold and petroleum
In 2017, Sudan exported goods of value 44.6bn and amongst this Gold was the most exported commodity. Around 32% exports of Sudan consisted of Gold whereas, 15% of the exports made up the Petroleum goods. Petroleum, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Gold, Silver, Tungsten, Mica and Zinc is found in Sudan.
7. Omar al-Bashir ruled Sudan for 30 years until 2019
After Omar Al-Bashir came to power in 1989, he was ultimately removed by a coup in the year 2019. He served the country for a period of 30 years. After he was removed from power, in the year 2019, he was then tried by the court. Later, the court handed down the verdict of a prison sentence because of the corruption charges. The Arab Spring also played a role as people in 2011 had demanded the change in top government. International Criminal Court had also indicted Omar Al-Bashir over his alleged involvement in the genocide campaign in Darfur. The Transitionary Military Council took a hold of the country after the coup for a limited time.
8. Blue and White River Nile combine in Sudan
As shown in the picture attached, the one which shows the path of river Nile in the above paragraphs, the Blue and White River Nile combine in Khartoum, which is the capital of Sudan. Ultimately they combine to form one river, to be flown through Egypt and Mediterranean sea. The White River Nile is the name given to the river because of its White colour due to the clay sediments, on the contrary the Blue River Nile is free from such a clay and happens to be a source of fertile soil.
9. Sudan has 19 major ethnic groups and over 597 ethnic subgroups
The largest ethnic group in Sudan are the Arabs. Obviously, Arabs form a major concentration on the Northern part of the Africa. According to one study, these Arabs form around 70% of the population in the country; therefore, have a say in the political power of the country. Further, due to the cross marriage, many of these Arabs are actually Afro-Arabs.
There is another group which is Nubian, which definitely belongs to the people who once started to live under the Kingdom of Nubia, the region mostly represents the Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt. The other groups in minorities are Fur People, Beja People and Nuba People.
10. Most of the Sudan’s oil fields are disputed
Because of the partition of the country in 2011, most of the oil fields which are located on the border between North and South Sudan, are actually disputed. The border line at some areas is still not identified and same goes for the matter of some oil wells. Further, after the peace deal, there was a revenue sharing agreement; however that too is in doldrums. During his regime, Omar al-Bashir had threatened to cut off the oil line which runs through the North Sudan to the port. If the reader looks at the map, shared above, he might realise South Sudan is landlocked.